Introduction: Function and structure of a computer, Functional components of a computer, Interconnection of components, Performance of a computer. Representation of Instructions: Machine instructions, Operands, Addressing modes, Instruction formats, Instruction sets, Instruction set architectures - CISC and RISC architectures. Processing Unit: Organization of a processor - Registers, ALU and Control unit, Data path in a CPU, Instruction cycle, Organization of a control unit - Operations of a control unit, Hardwired control unit, Microprogrammed control unit. Memory Subsystem: Semiconductor memories, Memory cells - SRAM and DRAM cells, Internal Organization of a memory chip, Organization of a memory unit, Error correction memories, Interleaved memories, Cache memory unit - Concept of cache memory, Mapping methods, Organization of a cache memory unit, Fetch and write mechanisms, Memory management unit - Concept of virtual memory, Address translation, Hardware support for memory management. Input/Output Subs